Management of grapevine trunk diseases: knowledge transfer, current strategies and innovative strategies adopted in Europe
Since the early 1990s, grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs) have posed threats for viticulture. Esca complex, Eutypa- and Botryosphaeria- diebacks, mostly detected in adult vineyards, are currently responsible for considerable economic losses in the main vine-growing areas of the world. Other GTDs, such as Petri- (Esca complex) and Black-foot diseases, are emerging problems in grapevine nurseries (resulting in grafting failures and/or loss of saleable plants) and in young vineyards. The impacts of GTDs in modern viticulture depend on several factors, some related to their complexity, and others linked to host plant characteristics, changes in vineyard management and to the scarcity of simple tools for their control. For these reasons control of GTDs remains difficult, also depending on knowledge transfer from research to field and vice versa. This paper outlines the main preventive and curative techniques currently applied, scientifically tested or not that have resulted from the outcomes of “Winetwork”, a European Union funded project with special emphasis on the promising and innovative approaches.
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