Microbiota of grapevine woody tissues with or without esca-foliar symptoms in northeast Spain
Grapevine Trunk Diseases (GTDs), particularly esca, are major concerns in Spain. This study characterized the fungal and bacterial communities in a 30-year-old ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’ vineyard in Catalonia, Spain. Six symptomatic vines expressing esca-foliar symptoms and six additional asymptomatic plants were surveyed. Non-necrotic and necrotic tissues were sampled from rootstocks, trunks and cordons of the selected vines. Fungal isolations and molecular techniques were used in combination to investigate the endophytic microflora and to characterize the fungal and bacterial diversity of the vines. Pathogenic fungi involved in GTDs were identified, and the associations were assessed between all the isolated fungal taxa and the health status of vines, host parts and tissue types. Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and Diplodia seriata were found in non-necrotic tissues, whereas Fomitiporia mediterranea was mainly found in soft-rot tissues, and Neofusicoccum parvum and Eutypa cf. lata in hard necrotic tissues. Several Alternaria and Trichoderma species were isolated, mainly from non-necrotic tissues. The single strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting method showed differences in bacterial and fungal communities between the different types of tissue in healthy and diseased vines. However, no differences were detected in these microbial communities between non-necrotic tissues from asymptomatic and symptomatic vines. Two frequently-isolated species of Paraconiothyrium were tested for pathogenicity, but their pathogenic roles on grapevines was unclear.
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