The concept of landscape in European culture, from Petrarca to Camporesi, from Marc Bloch to Sereni, is the subject of the lecture here transcribed, held in the PhD course in Urban planning at a university in Brazil, where planning faces territories which man has had no time to “elevate to the rank of landscape through a slow and unremitting cohabitation” (LÉVI-STRAUSS 1955). Conversely, in the old Continent, forms and modes of living have their roots in archaic civilisations: territorial transformation constantly renews, confirms or destroys ancient settlement structures. In Italy, both non-urban and urban historical landscapes are therefore highly human labour-intensive artefacts. Planning treats both according to similar principles: since the 1960’s, every old town is considered a monument as a whole in the complexity of physical, aesthetic and social relationships existing between prominent buildings and minor architecture; today, the attribution of cultural-asset value to rural territories as a whole is at an advanced stage of definition: which is evident in the case of Tuscany, described at the end of the paper.
landscape; Italy; Europe; landscape planning; Tuscany